The 3 muscle types: smooth, striated and heart muscles

3 types of muscles are described in the human organism. The smooth musculature, the heart musculature, and the cross-striped musculature. All have their peculiarities and special tasks. They never occur mixed in the human body.

 

Human 3 Muscle Types


The Smooth Musculature

The term “smooth” results from the lack of cross striation of the musculature under the microscope. The special thing about this type of muscle is that it cannot be controlled arbitrarily.

Occurrence and task

  • hair follicle muscles (everyone knows them, the goosebumps 😉 ).
  • vessels (blood and lymph vessels).
  • All hollow organs of the body, such as intestine, bladder, uterus (exception: myocardium).

The heart musculature

Anatomy HeartAs the name implies, the musculature only occurs in the heart. The great feature of this type of muscle is that it excites itself from within, i.e. it does not need nerve impulses from our nervous system to contract. This muscle is the only one in the body that works a whole life long without a break, beats about 2.8 billion and – normally – never tires.

Task

The heart with its four chambers pumps the blood through the organism (approx. 75 ml per kg body weight) and thus has a fundamental task in life support. The blood serves as a transport medium for nutrients, vitamins, minerals, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide but also heat and much more.

The striated musculature

This type of muscle takes its name from the distinctive cross striation, which is clearly visible under the microscope. The cross-striped muscles are also called skeletal muscles because they occur only there. Unlike smooth muscles, skeletal muscles are subject to our arbitrary control. The skeletal muscles are divided into different types of muscle fibers.

Task

The skeletal musculature serves the locomotion in space. But it also has other tasks. The tongue muscles play a role in food intake and speech modulation. The laryngeal muscles are needed for swallowing. The vocal cords also have their own striated muscles. Depending on the tension, the voice sounds higher or lower. And then there is the mimic musculature, which is responsible for the expression of our face.

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William C. Hilberg
As an author, Mr. Hilberg has published several papers on health issues that have gained international recognition. He is close to nature and loves the seclusion and activity as a freelance journalist. In his function as editor William C. Hilberg manages the entire content of PENP. Our team greatly appreciates his expertise and is proud to have him on board.