Condition: The 5 basic motor skills

The term endurance is often equated with condition, but is only a part of it. The term condition refers to the 5 basic motor skills of a person:

  • Force
  • Endurance
  • Speed
  • Mobility
  • Coordination

The distribution of these abilities is individual and very differently distributed. So it can also be explained that there are talents in various sports.

 

Condition – The 5 basic motor skills in detail


Force

Muscular Man in Strength Training

Strength in sport is the ability of the nerve-muscle system to overcome resistance (concentric work), counteract resistance (eccentric work) or hold resistance (static work) through innervation and metabolic processes with muscle contractions.

The 5 manifestations of force:

is the maximum force that can be exerted arbitrarily against a resistor.
is the resistance to fatigue in static and dynamic force applications (with more than 30 % of the maximum force).

Maximum force is the maximum force that can be exerted arbitrarily against a resistor.
Quick force is the ability to form force optimally quickly.
Performance endurance is the resistance to fatigue in static and dynamic force applications (with more than 30 % of the maximum force).
Reactive force Is the eccentric-concentric-concentric high-speed force at the shortest possible coupling (< 200 ms) of both working phases, i.e. in a strain shortening cycle.
Explosive force Is the ability to generate a high force increase at the beginning of a load.

Endurance

Endurance is the physical and mental resistance of the organism to fatigue during prolonged stress and the ability to recover quickly after stress.

The manifestations of endurance:

The training theory distinguishes 6 types of endurance from each other.

Short time Medium time Long-term I Long-term II Long-term III Long-term IV
35 – 120 sec. 2 – 10 min. 10 – 35 min. 35 – 90 min. 90 min. – 6 hrs. about 6 hrs.

For the (ambitious) hobby sport the following simplified classification has become established.

Short time Medium time Long-term
Up to 2 min. Up to 30 min. above 30 min.

Another distinction is local endurance and general endurance. The term local endurance is used when at most 14% of the skeletal muscles are active during an athletic activity. The load on the cardiovascular system is only moderate. In addition, there is talk of general endurance.

Quickness

Frau renntSpeed is the ability to react to a stimulus in the shortest time and/or to perform movements with highest speed at low resistance.

The three types of speed with examples in which sports these are particularly needed:

The three types of speed with examples in which sports these are particularly needed:

The three types of speed with examples in which they are particularly needed:

The three types of speed with examples in which they are particularly needed:

The three types of speed with examples in which they are particularly needed:

Response speed Acceleration capacity Motion speed
Boxes, table tennis Sprint, Handball, High jump Basketball, Volleyball

Movement

Mobility is the ability of our muscle-joint system to perform movements with a large range of motion (amplitude). See also my article stretch exercises.

Species and Distinctive Features of Mobility:

Jointing Depends on the anatomical structure of the bony joint partners and the associated capsule / ligamentous apparatus.
Stretchability Depends on the elasticity of muscles and tendons.
Active movability Includes the greatest possible amount of movement that can be achieved by (one’s own) muscle contraction.
Passive Mobility Includes the largest possible range of motion that can be achieved by the action of external forces (e.g. partners, weights).

Other factors that influence mobility include age, sex, temperature, time of day, hormones, psyche, etc.

Coordination

Coordination refers to the interaction of the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and skeletal muscles within a specific sequence of movements. Coordinative abilities are characteristics that determine athletic performance and relate to the control and regulation (and thus to the quality) of movements.

The 7 coordinative abilities:

Differentiation capability carry out motion sequences with high accuracy. Catch a hard or softly fed ball, cushion it on the mini trampoline, write it, etc.
Coupling capability coordinate the spatial, temporal and dynamic movements of parts of the body with respect to a specific action objective. Swimming technique, aerobics
Reactivity To respond to a signal at the most appropriate time at a task speed. Goalkeeper, table tennis, boxing, etc.
Orientation capability Determination and target-adapted change of the position and movement of the body in space and time. Diving, artistic gymnastics
Equilibrium ability to maintain or restore the equilibrium of the entire body during and after extensive body displacements. rope dancer/Slackline, balance beam
Adjustment / Conversion capability To adapt the action program to changing environmental conditions during the execution of the action, or possibly to start a completely new and adequate action program. Ski alpin, MTB Downhill
Rhythmization capability Recording an externally given rhythm and implementing it motorically. In addition, the ability to realize an internalized rhythm of a movement in one’s own movement activity. Dance

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William C. Hilberg
As an author, Mr. Hilberg has published several papers on health issues that have gained international recognition. He is close to nature and loves the seclusion and activity as a freelance journalist. In his function as editor William C. Hilberg manages the entire content of PENP. Our team greatly appreciates his expertise and is proud to have him on board.